VPP/Progressive VPP Tutorial

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Contents

Intro

This tutorial is designed for you to be able to run it on a single Ubuntu 16.04 VM on your laptop. It walks you through some very basic vpp senarios, with a focus on learning vpp commands, doing common actions, and being able to discover common things about the state of a running vpp.

This is *not* intended to be a 'how to run in a production environment' set of instructions.

Exercise: Setting up your environment

All of these exercises are designed to be performed on an Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial) box.

If you have an Ubuntu 16.04 box on which you have sudo, you can feel free to use that.

If you do not, a Vagrantfile is provided to setup a basic Ubuntu 16.04 box for you

Vagrant Set up

Action: Install Virtualbox

If you do not already have virtualbox on your laptop (or if it is not up to date), please download and install it:

https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads

Action: Install Vagrant

If you do not already have Vagrant on your laptop (or if it is not up to date), please download it:

https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.html

Action: Create a Vagrant Directory

Create a directory on your laptop:

mkdir fdio-tutorial
cd fdio-tutorial/

Create a Vagrantfile containing:

# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :

Vagrant.configure(2) do |config|

  config.vm.box = "puppetlabs/ubuntu-16.04-64-nocm"
  config.vm.box_check_update = false

  vmcpu=(ENV['VPP_VAGRANT_VMCPU'] || 2)
  vmram=(ENV['VPP_VAGRANT_VMRAM'] || 4096)

  config.ssh.forward_agent = true

  config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
      vb.customize ["modifyvm", :id, "--ioapic", "on"]
      vb.memory = "#{vmram}"
      vb.cpus = "#{vmcpu}"
      #support for the SSE4.x instruction is required in some versions of VB.
      vb.customize ["setextradata", :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/SSE4.1", "1"]
      vb.customize ["setextradata", :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/SSE4.2", "1"]
  end
end

Action: Vagrant Up

Bring up your Vagrant VM:

vagrant up

Action: ssh to Vagrant VM

vagrant ssh

Exercise: Install vpp

Skills to be learned

  1. Learn how to install vpp binary packges using apt-get.

Note: This tutorial is using a special packaging of vpp called vpp_lite that allows you to run multiple vpp processes simultaneously. We will be building topologies of these vpp processes to allow us to perform labs which require multiple instances of 'routers' or 'switches'. Because of this, we will be getting our vpp packages from a slightly non-standard apt repository.

The installation mechanism is very similar to the standard Install VPP from Binary Packages instructions.

Action: Add key for apt repo

curl -L https://packagecloud.io/fdio/tutorial/gpgkey | sudo apt-key add -

Action: Add repo to apt sources.list.d

With your favorite text editor (and sudo), create a file:

/etc/apt/sources.list.d/fdio_tutorial.list

containing

deb https://packagecloud.io/fdio/tutorial/ubuntu/ xenial main
deb-src https://packagecloud.io/fdio/tutorial/ubuntu/ xenial main

Action: apt-get install vpp

Run

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vpp

Exercise: vpp basics

Skills to be Learned

By the end of the exerise you should be able to:

  1. Run a vpp instance in a mode which allows multiple vpp processes to run
  2. Issue vpp commands from the unix shell
  3. Run a vpp shell and issue it commands


vpp command learned in this exercise

  1. show ver

Action: Run vpp

vpp runs in userspace. In a production environment you will often run it with DPDK to connect to real NICs or vhost to connect to VMs. In those circumstances you usually run a single instance of vpp.

For purposes of this tutorial, it is going to be extremely useful to run multiple instances of vpp, and connect them to each other to form a topology. Fortunately, vpp supports this.

When running multiple vpp instances, each instance needs to have specified a 'name' or 'prefix'. In the example below, the 'name' or 'prefix' is "vpp1"

sudo vpp api-segment { prefix vpp1 }

Example Output:

unix_physmem_init: use huge pages
vlib_plugin_early_init:230: plugin path /usr/lib/vpp_plugins
0: api_main_init:52: vam 6acb60

Action: Using vppctl to send commands to vpp

You can send vpp commands with a utility called
vppctl
.

When running vppctl against a named version of vpp, you will need to run:

sudo vppctl -p ${name} ${cmd}

So to run 'show ver' against the vpp instance named vpp1 you would run:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show ver

Output:

vpp v17.04-rc0~177-g006eb47 built by ubuntu on fdio-ubuntu1604-sevt at Mon Jan 30 18:30:12 UTC 2017


Action: Using vppctl to start a vpp shell

You can also use vppctl to launch a vpp shell with which you can run multiple vpp commands interactively by running:

sudo vppctl -p ${name}

which will give you a command prompt.

Try doing show ver that way:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1
vpp1# show ver

Output:

vpp v17.04-rc0~177-g006eb47 built by ubuntu on fdio-ubuntu1604-sevt at Mon Jan 30 18:30:12 UTC 2017

vpp1#

Exercise: Create an Interface

Skills to be Learned

  1. Create a veth interface in Linux host
  2. Assign an IP address to one end of the veth interface in the Linux host
  3. Create a vpp host-interface that connected to one end of a veth interface via AF_PACKET
  4. Add an ip address to a vpp interface
  5. Setup a 'trace'
  6. View a 'trace'
  7. Clear a 'trace'
  8. Verify using ping from host
  9. Ping from vpp
  10. Examine Arp Table
  11. Examine ip fib

vpp command learned in this exercise

  1. create host-interface
  2. set int state
  3. set int ip address
  4. show hardware
  5. show int
  6. show int addr
  7. trace add
  8. clear trace
  9. ping
  10. show ip arp
  11. show ip fib

Topology

Create Interface Topology

Initial State

The initial state here is presumed to be the final state from the exercise VPP Basics

Action: Create veth interfaces on host

In Linux, there is a type of interface call 'veth'. Think of a 'veth' interface as being an interface that has two ends to it (rather than one).

Create a veth interface with one end named vpp1out and the other named vpp1host

sudo ip link add name vpp1out type veth peer name vpp1host

Turn up both ends:

sudo ip link set dev vpp1out up
sudo ip link set dev vpp1host up

Assign an IP address

sudo ip addr add 10.10.1.1/24 dev vpp1host

Display the result:

sudo ip addr show vpp1host

Example Output:

10: vpp1host@vpp1out: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 5e:97:e3:41:aa:b8 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 10.10.1.1/24 scope global vpp1host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::5c97:e3ff:fe41:aab8/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

Action: Create vpp host- interface

Create a host interface attached to vpp1out.

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 create host-interface name vpp1out

Output:

host-vpp1out

Confirm the interface:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show hardware

Example Output:

              Name                Idx   Link  Hardware
host-vpp1out                       1     up   host-vpp1out
  Ethernet address 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
  Linux PACKET socket interface
local0                             0    down  local0
  local


Turn up the interface:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 set int state host-vpp1out up

Confirm the interface is up:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show int
              Name               Idx       State          Counter          Count     
host-vpp1out                      1         up       
local0                            0        down

Assign ip address 10.10.1.2/24

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 set int ip address host-vpp1out 10.10.1.2/24

Confirm the ip address is assigned:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show int addr
host-vpp1out (up):
  10.10.1.2/24
local0 (dn):

Action: Add trace

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 trace add af-packet-input 10

Action: Ping from host to vpp

ping -c 1 10.10.1.2
PING 10.10.1.2 (10.10.1.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.10.1.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.557 ms

--- 10.10.1.2 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.557/0.557/0.557/0.000 ms

Action: Examine Trace of ping from host to vpp

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show trace
------------------- Start of thread 0 vpp_main -------------------
Packet 1

00:09:30:397798: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 42 snaplen 42 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd3ac nsec 0x375abde7 vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:09:30:397906: ethernet-input
  ARP: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
00:09:30:397912: arp-input
  request, type ethernet/IP4, address size 6/4
  fa:13:55:ac:d9:50/10.10.1.1 -> 00:00:00:00:00:00/10.10.1.2
00:09:30:398191: host-vpp1out-output
  host-vpp1out
  ARP: 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50
  reply, type ethernet/IP4, address size 6/4
  02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7/10.10.1.2 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50/10.10.1.1

Packet 2

00:09:30:398227: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 98 snaplen 98 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd3ac nsec 0x37615060 vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:09:30:398295: ethernet-input
  IP4: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
00:09:30:398298: ip4-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x9b46
    fragment id 0x894c, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
  ICMP echo_request checksum 0x83c
00:09:30:398300: ip4-lookup
  fib 0 dpo-idx 5 flow hash: 0x00000000
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x9b46
    fragment id 0x894c, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
  ICMP echo_request checksum 0x83c
00:09:30:398303: ip4-local
    ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
      tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x9b46
      fragment id 0x894c, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
    ICMP echo_request checksum 0x83c
00:09:30:398305: ip4-icmp-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x9b46
    fragment id 0x894c, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
  ICMP echo_request checksum 0x83c
00:09:30:398307: ip4-icmp-echo-request
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x9b46
    fragment id 0x894c, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
  ICMP echo_request checksum 0x83c
00:09:30:398317: ip4-load-balance
  fib 0 dpo-idx 10 flow hash: 0x0000000e
  ICMP: 10.10.1.2 -> 10.10.1.1
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0xbef3
    fragment id 0x659f, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x103c
00:09:30:398318: ip4-rewrite
  tx_sw_if_index 1 dpo-idx 2 : ipv4 via 10.10.1.1 host-vpp1out: IP4: 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 flow hash: 0x00000000
  IP4: 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50
  ICMP: 10.10.1.2 -> 10.10.1.1
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0xbef3
    fragment id 0x659f, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x103c
00:09:30:398320: host-vpp1out-output
  host-vpp1out
  IP4: 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50
  ICMP: 10.10.1.2 -> 10.10.1.1
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0xbef3
    fragment id 0x659f, flags DONT_FRAGMENT
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x103c

Action: Clear trace buffer

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 clear  trace

Action: ping from vpp to host

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 ping 10.10.1.1
64 bytes from 10.10.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=.0865 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=.0914 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=.0943 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.1.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=.0959 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.1.1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=.0858 ms

Statistics: 5 sent, 5 received, 0% packet loss

Action: Examine Trace of ping from vpp to host

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show trace
------------------- Start of thread 0 vpp_main -------------------
Packet 1

00:12:47:155326: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 98 snaplen 98 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd471 nsec 0x161c61ad vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:12:47:155331: ethernet-input
  IP4: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
00:12:47:155334: ip4-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2604
    fragment id 0x3e8f
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x1a83
00:12:47:155335: ip4-lookup
  fib 0 dpo-idx 5 flow hash: 0x00000000
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2604
    fragment id 0x3e8f
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x1a83
00:12:47:155336: ip4-local
    ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
      tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2604
      fragment id 0x3e8f
    ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x1a83
00:12:47:155339: ip4-icmp-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2604
    fragment id 0x3e8f
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x1a83
00:12:47:155342: ip4-icmp-echo-reply
  ICMP echo id 17572 seq 1
00:12:47:155349: error-drop
  ip4-icmp-input: unknown type

Packet 2

00:12:48:155330: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 98 snaplen 98 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd472 nsec 0x1603e95b vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:12:48:155337: ethernet-input
  IP4: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
00:12:48:155341: ip4-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2565
    fragment id 0x3f2e
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x7405
00:12:48:155343: ip4-lookup
  fib 0 dpo-idx 5 flow hash: 0x00000000
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2565
    fragment id 0x3f2e
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x7405
00:12:48:155344: ip4-local
    ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
      tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2565
      fragment id 0x3f2e
    ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x7405
00:12:48:155346: ip4-icmp-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2565
    fragment id 0x3f2e
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x7405
00:12:48:155348: ip4-icmp-echo-reply
  ICMP echo id 17572 seq 2
00:12:48:155351: error-drop
  ip4-icmp-input: unknown type

Packet 3

00:12:49:155331: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 98 snaplen 98 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd473 nsec 0x15eb77ef vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:12:49:155337: ethernet-input
  IP4: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
00:12:49:155341: ip4-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x249e
    fragment id 0x3ff5
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xf446
00:12:49:155343: ip4-lookup
  fib 0 dpo-idx 5 flow hash: 0x00000000
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x249e
    fragment id 0x3ff5
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xf446
00:12:49:155345: ip4-local
    ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
      tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x249e
      fragment id 0x3ff5
    ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xf446
00:12:49:155349: ip4-icmp-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x249e
    fragment id 0x3ff5
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xf446
00:12:49:155350: ip4-icmp-echo-reply
  ICMP echo id 17572 seq 3
00:12:49:155354: error-drop
  ip4-icmp-input: unknown type

Packet 4

00:12:50:155335: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 98 snaplen 98 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd474 nsec 0x15d2ffb6 vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:12:50:155341: ethernet-input
  IP4: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
00:12:50:155346: ip4-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2437
    fragment id 0x405c
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x5b6e
00:12:50:155347: ip4-lookup
  fib 0 dpo-idx 5 flow hash: 0x00000000
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2437
    fragment id 0x405c
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x5b6e
00:12:50:155350: ip4-local
    ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
      tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2437
      fragment id 0x405c
    ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x5b6e
00:12:50:155351: ip4-icmp-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x2437
    fragment id 0x405c
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0x5b6e
00:12:50:155353: ip4-icmp-echo-reply
  ICMP echo id 17572 seq 4
00:12:50:155356: error-drop
  ip4-icmp-input: unknown type

Packet 5

00:12:51:155324: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 98 snaplen 98 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd475 nsec 0x15ba8726 vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:12:51:155331: ethernet-input
  IP4: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
00:12:51:155335: ip4-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x23cc
    fragment id 0x40c7
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xedb3
00:12:51:155337: ip4-lookup
  fib 0 dpo-idx 5 flow hash: 0x00000000
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x23cc
    fragment id 0x40c7
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xedb3
00:12:51:155338: ip4-local
    ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
      tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x23cc
      fragment id 0x40c7
    ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xedb3
00:12:51:155341: ip4-icmp-input
  ICMP: 10.10.1.1 -> 10.10.1.2
    tos 0x00, ttl 64, length 84, checksum 0x23cc
    fragment id 0x40c7
  ICMP echo_reply checksum 0xedb3
00:12:51:155343: ip4-icmp-echo-reply
  ICMP echo id 17572 seq 5
00:12:51:155346: error-drop
  ip4-icmp-input: unknown type

Packet 6

00:12:52:175185: af-packet-input
  af_packet: hw_if_index 1 next-index 4
    tpacket2_hdr:
      status 0x20000001 len 42 snaplen 42 mac 66 net 80
      sec 0x588fd476 nsec 0x16d05dd0 vlan 0 vlan_tpid 0
00:12:52:175195: ethernet-input
  ARP: fa:13:55:ac:d9:50 -> 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7
00:12:52:175200: arp-input
  request, type ethernet/IP4, address size 6/4
  fa:13:55:ac:d9:50/10.10.1.1 -> 00:00:00:00:00:00/10.10.1.2
00:12:52:175214: host-vpp1out-output
  host-vpp1out
  ARP: 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50
  reply, type ethernet/IP4, address size 6/4
  02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7/10.10.1.2 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50/10.10.1.1

After examinging the trace, clear it again.

Action: Examine arp tables

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show ip arp
    Time           IP4       Flags      Ethernet              Interface       
    570.4092    10.10.1.1      D    fa:13:55:ac:d9:50       host-vpp1out      

Action: Examine routing table

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show ip fib
ipv4-VRF:0, fib_index 0, flow hash: src dst sport dport proto 
0.0.0.0/0
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:0 buckets:1 uRPF:0 to:[0:0]]
    [0] [@0]: dpo-drop ip4
0.0.0.0/32
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:1 buckets:1 uRPF:1 to:[0:0]]
    [0] [@0]: dpo-drop ip4
10.10.1.1/32
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:10 buckets:1 uRPF:9 to:[5:420] via:[1:84]]
    [0] [@5]: ipv4 via 10.10.1.1 host-vpp1out: IP4: 02:fe:48:ec:d5:a7 -> fa:13:55:ac:d9:50
10.10.1.0/24
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:8 buckets:1 uRPF:7 to:[0:0]]
    [0] [@4]: ipv4-glean: host-vpp1out
10.10.1.2/32
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:9 buckets:1 uRPF:8 to:[6:504]]
    [0] [@2]: dpo-receive: 10.10.1.2 on host-vpp1out
224.0.0.0/4
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:3 buckets:1 uRPF:3 to:[0:0]]
    [0] [@0]: dpo-drop ip4
240.0.0.0/4
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:2 buckets:1 uRPF:2 to:[0:0]]
    [0] [@0]: dpo-drop ip4
255.255.255.255/32
  unicast-ip4-chain
  [@0]: dpo-load-balance: [index:4 buckets:1 uRPF:4 to:[0:0]]
    [0] [@0]: dpo-drop ip4

Exercise: Connecting two vpp instances

Skills to be Learned

You should be able to perform this exercise with the following skills learned in previous exercises:

  1. Create a veth interface in Linux host
  2. Create a vpp host-interface that connected to one end of a veth interface via AF_PACKET
  3. Add an ip address to a vpp interface
  4. Ping from vpp

Topology

Connect two vpp topology

Initial state

The initial state here is presumed to be the final state from the exercise Create an Interface

Action: Running a second vpp instances

You should already have a vpp instance running named: vpp1.

Run a second vpp instance named: vpp2.

Action: Create veth interface on host to connect the two vpp instances

Create a veth interface on the Linux host with one end named vpp1vpp2 and the other named vpp2vpp1.

Don't assign an ip address to either end on the host.

Action: Create vpp host interfaces

Create a host interface on vpp1 connected to vpp1vpp2. Assign it the address 10.10.2.1/24

Create a host interface on vpp2 connected to vpp2vpp1. Assign it the address 10.10.2.2/24

Action: Ping from vpp1 to vpp2

Ping 10.10.2.2 from vpp1

Ping 10.10.2.1 from vpp2

WARNING: Things that can go wrong

If you fail to 'up' your veth interfaces *before* you create your vpp host interfaces that are connected to them, you will have connectivity difficulties. If you have made this mistake, correct it with:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 delete host-interface name vpp1vpp2
sudo vppctl -p vpp2 delete host-interface name vpp2vpp1

Exercise: Routing

Skills to be Learned

In this exercise you will learn these new skills:

  1. Add route to Linux Host routing table
  2. Add route to vpp routing table

And revisit the old ones:

  1. Examine vpp routing table
  2. Enable trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  3. ping from host to vpp
  4. Examine and clear trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  5. ping from vpp to host
  6. Examine and clear trace on vpp1 and vpp2

vpp command learned in this exercise

  1. ip route add

Topology

Connect two vpp topology

Initial State

The initial state here is presumed to be the final state from the exercise Connecting two vpp instances

Action: Setup host route

sudo ip route add 10.10.2.0/24 via 10.10.1.2
ip route
default via 10.0.2.2 dev enp0s3 
10.0.2.0/24 dev enp0s3  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.0.2.15 
10.10.1.0/24 dev vpp1host  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.10.1.1 
10.10.2.0/24 via 10.10.1.2 dev vpp1host 

Setup return route on vpp2

sudo vppctl -p vpp2 ip route add 10.10.1.0/24  via 10.10.2.1

Ping from host through vpp1 to vpp2

  1. Setup a trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  2. Ping 10.10.2.2 from the host
  3. Examine the trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  4. Clear the trace on vpp1 and vpp2

Ping from vpp2 through vpp1 to host

  1. Setup the trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  2. Ping 10.10.1.1 from vpp2
  3. Examine the trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  4. Clear the trace on vpp1 and vpp2

Exercise: Switching

Skills to be Learned

  1. Associate an interface with a bridge domain
  2. Create a loopback interaface
  3. Create a BVI (Bridge Virtual Interface) for a bridge domain
  4. Examine a bridge domain

vpp command learned in this exercise

  1. show bridge
  2. show bridge detail
  3. set int l2 bridge
  4. show l2fib verbose

Topology

Switching Topology

Initial state

Unlike previous exercises, for this one you want to start tabula rasa.

Note: You will lose all your existing config in your vpp instances!

To clear existing config from previous exercises run:

ps -ef | grep vpp | awk '{print $2}'| xargs sudo kill
sudo ip link del dev vpp1host
sudo ip link del dev vpp1vpp2

Action: Run vpp instances

  1. Run a vpp instance named vpp1
  2. Run a vpp instance named vpp2

Action: Connect vpp1 to host

  1. Create a veth with one end named vpp1host and the other named vpp1out.
  2. Connect vpp1out to vpp1
  3. Add ip address 10.10.1.1/24 on vpphost

Action: Connect vpp1 to vpp2

  1. Create a veth with one end named vpp1vpp2 and the other named vpp2vpp1.
  2. Connect vpp1vpp2 to vpp1.
  3. Connect vpp2vpp2 to vpp1.

Action: Configure Bridge Domain on vpp1

Check to see what bridge domains already exist, and select the first bridge domain number not in use:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show bridge-domain
  ID   Index   Learning   U-Forwrd   UU-Flood   Flooding   ARP-Term     BVI-Intf   
  0      0        off        off        off        off        off        local0    

In the example above, there is bridge domain ID '0' already, so we will create bridge domain 1.

Add host-vpp1out to bridge domain ID 1

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 set interface l2 bridge host-vpp1out 1

Add host-vpp1vpp2 to bridge domain ID1

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 set int l2 bridge host-vpp1vpp2  1

Examine bridge domain 1:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show bridge-domain 1 detail
  ID   Index   Learning   U-Forwrd   UU-Flood   Flooding   ARP-Term     BVI-Intf   
  1      1        on         on         on         on         off          N/A     

           Interface           Index  SHG  BVI  TxFlood        VLAN-Tag-Rewrite       
         host-vpp1out            1     0    -      *                 none             
         host-vpp1vpp2           2     0    -      *                 none

Action: Configure loopback interface on vpp2

sudo vppctl -p vpp2 create loopback interface
loop0

Add the ip address 10.10.1.2/24 to vpp2 interface loop0. Set the state of interface loop0 on vpp2 to 'up'

Action: Configure bridge domain on vpp2

Check to see the first available bridge domain ID (it will be 1 in this case)

Add interface loop0 as a bvi interface to bridge domain 1

sudo vppctl -p vpp2 set int l2 bridge loop0 1 bvi

Add interface vpp2vpp1 to bridge domain 1

sudo vppctl -p vpp2 set int l2 bridge host-vpp2vpp1  1

Examine the bridge domain and interfaces.

Action: Ping from host to vpp and vpp to host

  1. Add trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  2. ping from host to 10.10.1.2
  3. Examine and clear trace on vpp1 and vpp2
  4. ping from vpp2 to 10.10.1.1
  5. Examine and clear trace on vpp1 and vpp2

Action: Examine l2 fib

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show l2fib verbose
    Mac Address     BD Idx           Interface           Index  static  filter  bvi   Mac Age (min) 
 de:ad:00:00:00:00    1            host-vpp1vpp2           2       0       0     0      disabled    
 c2:f6:88:31:7b:8e    1            host-vpp1out            1       0       0     0      disabled    
2 l2fib entries
sudo vppctl -p vpp2 show l2fib verbose
    Mac Address     BD Idx           Interface           Index  static  filter  bvi   Mac Age (min) 
 de:ad:00:00:00:00    1                loop0               2       1       0     1      disabled    
 c2:f6:88:31:7b:8e    1            host-vpp2vpp1           1       0       0     0      disabled    
2 l2fib entries

Source NAT

Skills to be Learned

  1. Abusing networks namespaces for fun and profit
  2. Configuring snat address
  3. Configuring snat inside and outside interfaces

vpp command learned in this exercise

  1. snat add interface address
  2. set interface snat

Topology

SNAT Topology

Initial state

Unlike previous exercises, for this one you want to start tabula rasa.

Note: You will lose all your existing config in your vpp instances!

To clear existing config from previous exercises run:

ps -ef | grep vpp | awk '{print $2}'| xargs sudo kill
sudo ip link del dev vpp1host
sudo ip link del dev vpp1vpp2

Action: Install vpp-plugins

Snat is supported by a plugin, so vpp-plugins need to be installed

sudo apt-get install vpp-plugins

Action: Create vpp instance

Create one vpp instance named vpp1.

Confirm snat plugin is present:

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 show plugins
 Plugin path is: /usr/lib/vpp_plugins
 Plugins loaded: 
  1.ioam_plugin.so
  2.ila_plugin.so
  3.acl_plugin.so
  4.flowperpkt_plugin.so
  5.snat_plugin.so
  6.libsixrd_plugin.so
  7.lb_plugin.so

Action: Create veth interfaces

  1. Create a veth interface with one end named vpp1outside and the other named vpp1outsidehost
  2. Assign IP address 10.10.1.1/24 to vpp1outsidehost
  3. Create a veth interface with one end named vpp1inside and the other named vpp1insidehost
  4. Assign IP address 10.10.2.1/24 to vpp1outsidehost

Because we'd like to be able to route *via* our vpp instance to an interface on the same host, we are going to put vpp1insidehost into a network namespace

Create a new network namespace 'inside'

sudo ip netns add inside

Move interface vpp1inside into the 'inside' namespace:

sudo ip link set dev vpp1insidehost up netns inside

Assign an ip address to vpp1insidehost

sudo ip netns exec inside ip addr add 10.10.2.1/24 dev vpp1insidehost

Create a route inside the netns:

sudo ip netns exec inside ip route add 10.10.1.0/24 via 10.10.2.2

Action: Configure vpp outside interface

  1. Create a vpp host interface connected to vpp1outside
  2. Assign ip address 10.10.1.2/24
  3. Create a vpp host interface connected to vpp1inside
  4. Assign ip address 10.10.2.2/24

Action: Configure snat

Configure snat to use the address of host-vpp1outside

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 snat add interface address host-vpp1outside

Configure snat inside and outside interfaces

sudo vppctl -p vpp1 set interface snat in host-vpp1inside out host-vpp1outside

Action: Prepare to Observe Snat

Observing snat in this configuration is interesting. To do so, vagrant ssh a second time into your VM and run:

sudo tcpdump -s 0 -i vpp1outsidehost

Also enable tracing on vpp1

Action: Ping via snat

sudo ip netns exec inside ping -c 1 10.10.1.1

Action: Confirm snat

Examine the tcpdump output and vpp1 trace to confirm snat occurred.